What are the processes involved in a water treatment plant?

What are the processes involved in a water treatment plant?

Water treatment involves the process of eliminating any contaminants that are potentially detrimental to the water supply for domestic & human use, whether chemical, physical or biological. This water treatment using Plantas piloto de tratamiento de agua aids in the production of safe, tasty, transparent, colorless, and odorless water. Water must also be non-corrosive, which means it must not damage pipes.

The large-scale water processing utilizing Plantas piloto de tratamiento de agua for urban municipal water supply involves seven key processes. Each of the processes is detailed in detail in the article below:

1. Screening

Screens must be used to remove any big floating & suspended materials present in the intake to safeguard the main components of a treatment plant & help in their proper functioning. These items include twigs, paper, leaves, rags, & other waste that might clog the plant’s flow or cause equipment damage.

There are coarse & fine screens available.

Coarse screens are constructed of corrosion-resistant metal bars set 5–15 cm apart & used to keep coarse debris (like logs & fish) out of the treatment plant. The screens are set at a 60o angle to assist mechanical raking of the gathered material.
Fine screens that come after coarse screens filter out particles that may clog the plant’s piping. They are made up of metal bars spaced 6–21 mm apart. The micro strainer is a fine screen version that consists of a revolving cylinder of stainless steel mesh with just an extremely small mesh size (varying from 16 m to 66 m, i.e., 16–66 millionths of a meter). It is possible to catch suspended particles as tiny as algae & plankton (microscopic creatures that move with the stream in water). High-pressure water jets use clean water to loosen trapped particles from the fabric, which are then transported away for disposal.

2. Aeration

After screening, the water is aerated (provided with oxygen from the air) by passing it through several stages. This method aids in the removal of soluble gases like carbon dioxide & hydrogen sulfide (both of which are acidic, making the water slightly corrosive) as well as any gaseous biological compounds that impart a disagreeable flavor to the water. Aeration also eliminates iron and manganese by oxidizing these elements to an insoluble state. Iron & manganese may both generate strange tastes & discolor fabric. Filtration can be used to remove these chemicals once they have become insoluble.

Excess algae in raw water can cause algal development, which can clog the sand filter farther in the water treatment process. In such cases, chlorination is employed instead of, or in conjunction with aeration to eliminate the algae, a process known as pre-chlorination. This water treatment method using Plantas piloto de tratamiento de agua comes before the major phases of water treatment. Pre-chlorination also oxidizes chemicals that cause bad taste & odor.

3. Coagulation & Flocculation

Coagulation happens after aeration to remove tiny particles (less than one meter in size) present in the water. In this method, a substance termed a coagulant (with just a positive electrical charge) is introduced to the water, which neutralizes the negative electrical charge of the tiny particles. The coagulant is added in a quick mix tank, where it is quickly dispersed by a high-speed impeller.

Because their charges have now been neutralized, the tiny particles combine to create soft, fluffy particles known as ‘flocs.’ Aluminumsulfate & ferric chloride are two coagulants often used in water treatment.

The following phase is flocculation. The water inside a flocculation basin is gently moved by paddles, & the flocs come into touch with one another to produce bigger flocs. If you want your water treatment plant to work efficiently, then opt for Plantas piloto de tratamiento de agua.

4. Sedimentation

When big flocs grow, they must be settled out, which is accomplished by a process known as sedimentation. The water is maintained in the container for a few hours to allow sedimentation to occur. Sludge is the material that accumulates at the tank’s bottom and is withdrawn for disposal. Plantas piloto de tratamiento de agua helps your water treatment plant to work efficiently.

5. Filtration

Filtration is the process of separating particles from liquids. The sediments that aren’t separated inside the sedimentation tank are then removed in water treatment using Plantas piloto de tratamiento de agua by running the water through gravel beds & sand. Rapid gravity filters are commonly employed because they have a flow velocity of 5–8 cubic meters per square meter of filter area per hour.

When the filters get clogged with retained solids, these are back-washed. Clean water & air are pushed back up the strainer to remove the trapped contaminants, & the dirty water is piped into the sewage system if one exists. Alternatively, it might be released back into the parent river following a solids-removal step inside a sedimentation tank.

6. Chlorination

The water is treated after sedimentation to remove any leftover harmful microorganisms. Chlorine, either as a liquid (like sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl) or even as a gas, is indeed the most often used disinfectant. It is reasonably priced & simple to use. When chlorine is introduced to water, it interacts with any contaminants present, particularly microorganisms, over a certain period known as the contact period.

The quantity of chlorine that remains after this is referred to as residual chlorine. This remains in the water throughout the distribution system, shielding it from any organisms that may infiltrate till it reaches the users.

7. Supplementary Treatment

Supplemental therapy may be required for the population’s benefit. Fluoridation of water is one such example in which fluoride is applied to the water. The World Health Organization has said that “fluoridation of water sources is by far the most successful public health strategy for the control of tooth decay.” The ideal fluoride concentration is roughly 1 milligram per liter of water.


The procedures of water purification plants are crucial to ensuring a safe water supply for commercial & public usage. The procedures must be quality-checked regularly to guarantee that requirements are followed & that the public receives clean, wholesome water. This entails hiring professionals who understand how to manage treatment facilities & how water is cleansed.

At Keiken Engineering, we have the expertise & flexibility necessary to conceive, construct, & implement the best technological solutions for each project, specifically answering the client’s requests at exceptionally low costs and ensuring unrivaled schedules. Please send an email to info@keiken.es if you would like more information about our Water Treatment facilities.